Carlo M. Cipolla outlined the five laws of a constant in society: stupidity.
To Cipolla, the stupid people among us possess several identifying traits: “they are abundant, they are irrational, and they cause problems for others without apparent benefit to themselves, thereby lowering society’s total well-being.”
According to Carlo, there are no defences against stupidity, the best thing one can do is identify the problem.
Carlo also draws attention to an alarming proliferation of the bandits with overtones of stupidity.
Law 1: Always and inevitably everyone underestimates the number of stupid individuals in circulation.
Law 2: The probability that a certain person be stupid is independent of any other characteristic of that person.
Law 3: A stupid person is a person who causes losses to another person or to a group of persons while himself deriving no gain and even possibly incurring losses.
Law 4: Non-stupid people always underestimate the damaging power of stupid individuals. In particular non-stupid people constantly forget that at all times and places and under any circumstances to deal and/or associate with stupid people always turns out to be a costly mistake.
Law 5: A stupid person is the most dangerous type of person.
This book you should read without losing a minute.